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Fenugreek Seed

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Fenugreek Seed
Scientific Names
Forms Traditional Usage Overview Active Ingredients Suggested Amount Drug Interactions Contraindications Side Effects References
Scientific Names:
Trigonella foenum-graecum L. [Fam. Fabaceae]

Forms:
Infusion, extract, tincture, and poultice made from the crushed or powered seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Traditional Usage:
- Anti-inflammatory
- Antiseptic
- Antispasmodic
- Appetite loss
- Breastfeeding Aid
- Catarrh (Respiratory)
- Colds and Flu, Bronchitis, Sore Throat
- Diarrhea
- Digestive Disorders
- Dyspepsia
- Female Health Maintenance
- Indigestion
- Menstrual Health Maintenance
- Poultice
- Respiratory Health Maintenance
- Skin Disorders
- Skin inflammation
- Sugar Control
- Ulcers


Overview:
Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. [Fam. Fabaceae], also known as Bird’s Foot, is indigenous to the Mediterranean region, the Ukraine, India, and China. The medicinal properties of fenugreek are found in the ripe, dry seeds, which have been used for thousands of years in Arabian, Greek, Indian, and Chinese medicine. Crushed or powdered, these seeds can be used externally and applied as poultices for boils, hives, ulcers, and eczema. Internally, fenugreek seeds have been used in folk medicine to reduce blood sugar, increase lactation and treat pellagra, appetite loss, indigestion, dyspepsia, bronchitis, fever, hernia, impotence, vomiting, catarrh of the respiratory tract, and stomach ulcers. Fenugreek seed is also known to make women more buxom and treat hormonal imbalances. According to the German Commission E, fenugreek seeds have secretolytic (anti-mucous) and mild antiseptic properties. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia states that the seeds have demulcent (soothing) and hypoglycemic actions. Jean Carper, in her excellent book, Food Your Miracle Medicine, notes that fenugreek has long been used in Indian and Middle Eastern cooking and has a long history of use for treating diarrhea and gastrointestinal spasms. Scientific studies have shown that for adults (not children), taking one-half teaspoon of fenugreek seeds with water three times daily often produces a quick and “marked” relief, usually after the second dose according to researchers at the Odense University in Denmark. Carper also reports that scientists at India’s National Institute of Nutrition recently ground up fenugreek seeds and gave the powder to Type I sugar control patients. Not only did their fasting blood sugar fall and their glucose tolerance improve, but their blood cholesterol also went down. Israeli scientists have confirmed this with normal and sugar-control patients. Many animal studies have documented the same. Other studies established anti-inflammatory effects of the seeds and strong activity against abnormal growths.

Active Ingredients:
Fenugreek seed contains 45-60% carbohydrates, mainly mucilaginous fiber (galactomannans); 20-30% proteins high in lysine and tryptophan; 5-10% fixed oils (lipids); pryridine-type alkaloids mostly trigonelline (0.2-0.36%), choline (0.5%), gentianine, and carpaine; flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin, and isovitexin); free amino acids (4-hydroxyisoleucine [0.09%], arginine, histidine, and lysine); calcium and iron; saponins (0.6-1.7%); glycosides yielding steroidal sapogenins on hydrolysis (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, neotigogenin); cholesterol and sitosterol, vitamins A, B1, C, and nicotinic acid; and 0.015% volatile oils (n-alkanes and sesquiterpenes). [Blumenthal et al. 2000; Shang M, Cai S, Han J, Li J, Zhao Y, Zheng J, Namba T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y, Fan W. 1998. Studies on flavonoids from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Oct; 23(10): 614-6, 639].


Suggested Amount:
The German Commission E recommends an internal daily dose of 6 grams. For infusions, place 0.5 grams (1 teaspoon = 4.5 g) of fenugreek seed in cold water and let stand for three hours and strain. Drink one cup with honey several times per day.
Fluidextract 1:1 (g/ml): 6 ml.
Tincture 1:5 (g/ml): 30 ml.
Native extract 3-4:1 (w/w): 1.5-2 g. (Blumenthal, Goldberg, Brinckmann, 2000)

For external use: The German Commison E recommends an external dose of 50 grams of powdered fenugreek seed added to 1/4 litre of hot water and applied as a warm poultice or used as a bath additive. (Wichtl and Bisset)

Drug Interactions:
None known.

Contraindications:
Not recommended during pregnancy.

Side Effects:
According to Wichtl and Bisset (1994), excessive use may result in skin reactions. Coumarins and estrogen can be toxic if taken in large amounts. Fenugreek seeds are also believed to contain trypsin inhibitors and chymotrypsin inhibitors. (Duke JA. 1985)

References:

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Copyright American Botanical Council. Publ. by Integrative Medicine Communications, 1029 Chestnut Street, Newton, MA 02464. Pp. 130-133.
Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Aug; 224(1-2): 45-51.
Sharma, R. D. 1990. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 44(4): 301-306.
Sur P, Das M, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Sahu NP, Banerjee S, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent. Phytother Res. 2001 May; 15(3): 257-9.

Wichtl M and NG Bisset (eds). 1994. Foenugraeci semen – Fenugreek seed, Trigonella. In Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. (English translation by Norman Grainger Bisset). CRC Press, Stuttgart, pp. 203-205.

FENUGREEK SEED

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Fenugreek Seed Fenugreek Seed
Scientific Names Nama ilmiah Forms Formulir Traditional Usage Penggunaan tradisional Overview Tinjauan Active Ingredients Bahan aktif Suggested Amount Jumlah yang disarankan Drug Interactions Interaksi Obat Contraindications Kontraindikasi Side Effects Side Effects References Referensi
Scientific Names: Nama ilmiah: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. [Fam. [Fam. Fabaceae] Fabaceae]

Forms: Bentuk: Infusion, extract, tincture, and poultice made from the crushed or powered seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Infus, ekstrak, tingtur, dan tapal terbuat dari dihancurkan atau benih powered Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Traditional Usage: Traditional Usage: - Anti-inflammatory - Anti-inflamasi
- Antiseptic - Antiseptik
- Antispasmodic - Antispasmodic
- Appetite loss - Appetite kerugian
- Breastfeeding Aid - Menyusui Bantuan
- Catarrh (Respiratory) - Penyakit ingusan (Respiratory)
- Colds and Flu, Bronchitis, Sore Throat - Pilek dan Flu, Bronchitis, Radang Tenggorokan
- Diarrhea - Diare
- Digestive Disorders - »Bantuan
- Dyspepsia - Dispepsia
- Female Health Maintenance - Female Pemeliharaan Kesehatan
- Indigestion - Gangguan pencernaan
- Menstrual Health Maintenance - Menstrual Pemeliharaan Kesehatan
- Poultice - Tapal
- Respiratory Health Maintenance - Respiratory Pemeliharaan Kesehatan
- Skin Disorders - Skin Disorders
- Skin inflammation - Kulit peradangan
- Sugar Control - Gula Control
- Ulcers - Ulcers

Overview: Overview: Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. [Fam. [Fam. Fabaceae], also known as Bird’s Foot, is indigenous to the Mediterranean region, the Ukraine, India, and China. Fabaceae], juga dikenal sebagai Bird’s Foot, adalah pribumi untuk wilayah Mediterania, Ukraina, India, dan Cina. The medicinal properties of fenugreek are found in the ripe, dry seeds, which have been used for thousands of years in Arabian, Greek, Indian, and Chinese medicine. Sifat-sifat obat fenugreek ditemukan di matang, biji kering, yang telah digunakan selama ribuan tahun di Arab, Yunani, India, dan obat Cina. Crushed or powdered, these seeds can be used externally and applied as poultices for boils, hives, ulcers, and eczema. Hancur atau bubuk, bibit ini dapat digunakan secara eksternal dan diterapkan sebagai poultices untuk bisul, gatal-gatal, bisul, dan eksim. Internally, fenugreek seeds have been used in folk medicine to reduce blood sugar, increase lactation and treat pellagra, appetite loss, indigestion, dyspepsia, bronchitis, fever, hernia, impotence, vomiting, catarrh of the respiratory tract, and stomach ulcers. Secara internal, biji fenugreek telah digunakan dalam obat rakyat untuk mengurangi gula darah, meningkatkan laktasi dan memperlakukan pellagra, kehilangan nafsu makan, gangguan pencernaan, dispepsia, bronkitis, demam, hernia, impotensi, muntah, penyakit ingusan dari saluran pernapasan, dan radang perut. Fenugreek seed is also known to make women more buxom and treat hormonal imbalances. Biji fenugreek juga dikenal untuk membuat wanita lebih montok dan mengobati ketidakseimbangan hormon. According to the German Commission E, fenugreek seeds have secretolytic (anti-mucous) and mild antiseptic properties. Menurut Komisi E Jerman, biji fenugreek memiliki secretolytic (anti-lendir) dan antiseptik ringan. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia states that the seeds have demulcent (soothing) and hypoglycemic actions. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia menyatakan bahwa bibit telah yg menawar rasa sakit (menenangkan) dan tindakan hipoglikemik. Jean Carper, in her excellent book, Food Your Miracle Medicine , notes that fenugreek has long been used in Indian and Middle Eastern cooking and has a long history of use for treating diarrhea and gastrointestinal spasms. Jean Carper, dalam buku yang bagus, Food Your Miracle Medicine, mencatat bahwa fenugreek telah lama digunakan di India dan Timur Tengah memasak dan memiliki sejarah panjang digunakan untuk mengobati diare dan gastrointestinal spasms. Scientific studies have shown that for adults (not children), taking one-half teaspoon of fenugreek seeds with water three times daily often produces a quick and “marked” relief, usually after the second dose according to researchers at the Odense University in Denmark. Studi ilmiah telah menunjukkan bahwa untuk orang dewasa (bukan anak-anak), mengambil satu-setengah sendok teh biji fenugreek dengan air tiga kali sehari sering menghasilkan cepat dan “ditandai” lega, biasanya setelah dosis kedua menurut para peneliti di Universitas Odense di denmark. Carper also reports that scientists at India’s National Institute of Nutrition recently ground up fenugreek seeds and gave the powder to Type I sugar control patients. Carper juga melaporkan bahwa para ilmuwan di India’s National Institute of Nutrition baru-baru ini bawah ke atas biji fenugreek dan memberi bubuk Tipe I pengendalian gula pasien. Not only did their fasting blood sugar fall and their glucose tolerance improve, but their blood cholesterol also went down. Tidak hanya gula darah puasa mereka jatuh dan toleransi glukosa meningkatkan mereka, tetapi juga kolesterol darah mereka turun. Israeli scientists have confirmed this with normal and sugar-control patients. Ilmuwan Israel telah menegaskan hal ini dengan normal dan pengendalian gula pasien. Many animal studies have documented the same. Banyak penelitian telah mendokumentasikan hewan yang sama. Other studies established anti-inflammatory effects of the seeds and strong activity against abnormal growths. Studi-studi lain didirikan efek anti-inflamasi benih dan kegiatan yang kuat terhadap pertumbuhan abnormal.

Active Ingredients: Bahan Aktif: Fenugreek seed contains 45-60% carbohydrates, mainly mucilaginous fiber (galactomannans); 20-30% proteins high in lysine and tryptophan; 5-10% fixed oils (lipids); pryridine-type alkaloids mostly trigonelline (0.2-0.36%), choline (0.5%), gentianine, and carpaine; flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin, and isovitexin); free amino acids (4-hydroxyisoleucine [0.09%], arginine, histidine, and lysine); calcium and iron; saponins (0.6-1.7%); glycosides yielding steroidal sapogenins on hydrolysis (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, neotigogenin); cholesterol and sitosterol, vitamins A, B1, C, and nicotinic acid; and 0.015% volatile oils (n-alkanes and sesquiterpenes). Biji fenugreek mengandung 45-60% karbohidrat, terutama mucilaginous serat (galactomannans); 20-30% protein tinggi lisin dan triptofan; 5-10% tetap minyak (lipid); pryridine-jenis alkaloid kebanyakan trigonelline (0,2-0,36%), kolin (0,5%), gentianine, dan carpaine; flavonoid (apigenin, luteolin, orientin, quercetin, vitexin, dan isovitexin); asam amino bebas (4-hydroxyisoleucine [0.09%], arginin, histidin, dan lisin), kalsium dan besi ; saponin (0,6-1,7%); glikosida steroid menghasilkan sapogenins pada hidrolisis (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, neotigogenin); kolesterol dan sitosterol, vitamin A, B1, C, dan asam nikotinat, dan 0,015% minyak volatile (n-alkana dan sesquiterpenes). [Blumenthal et al. [Blumenthal et al. 2000; Shang M, Cai S, Han J, Li J, Zhao Y, Zheng J, Namba T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y, Fan W. 1998. 2000; Shang M, Cai S, Han J, Li J, Zhao Y, Zheng J, Namba T, Kadota S, Tezuka Y, Fan W. 1998. Studies on flavonoids from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. Studies on flavonoid dari Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Oct; 23(10): 614-6, 639]. 1998 Oct; 23 (10): 614-6, 639].


Suggested Amount: Jumlah yang disarankan: The German Commission E recommends an internal daily dose of 6 grams. Jerman Komisi E merekomendasikan dosis harian internal dari 6 gram. For infusions, place 0.5 grams (1 teaspoon = 4.5 g) of fenugreek seed in cold water and let stand for three hours and strain. Untuk infus, tempat 0,5 gram (1 sendok teh = 4,5 g) dari fenugreek benih dalam air dingin dan biarkan selama tiga jam dan ketegangan. Drink one cup with honey several times per day. Minum satu cangkir dengan madu beberapa kali per hari.
Fluidextract 1:1 (g/ml): 6 ml. Fluidextract 1:1 (g / ml): 6 ml.
Tincture 1:5 (g/ml): 30 ml. Tingtur 1:5 (g / ml): 30 ml.
Native extract 3-4:1 (w/w): 1.5-2 g. Asli ekstrak 3-4:1 (b / b): 1,5-2 g. (Blumenthal, Goldberg, Brinckmann, 2000) (Blumenthal, Goldberg, Brinckmann, 2000)

For external use: The German Commison E recommends an external dose of 50 grams of powdered fenugreek seed added to 1/4 litre of hot water and applied as a warm poultice or used as a bath additive. Untuk penggunaan luar: The Commison E merekomendasikan jerman eksternal dosis 50 gram bubuk ditambahkan biji fenugreek 1 / 4 liter air panas dan diterapkan sebagai tapal hangat atau digunakan sebagai aditif mandi. (Wichtl and Bisset) (Wichtl dan Bisset)

Drug Interactions: Interaksi Obat: None known. None dikenal.

Contraindications: Kontraindikasi: Not recommended during pregnancy. Tidak dianjurkan selama kehamilan.

Side Effects: Side Effects: According to Wichtl and Bisset (1994), excessive use may result in skin reactions. Menurut Wichtl dan Bisset (1994), penggunaan yang berlebihan dapat menyebabkan reaksi kulit. Coumarins and estrogen can be toxic if taken in large amounts. Coumarins dan estrogen bisa beracun jika dikonsumsi dalam jumlah besar. Fenugreek seeds are also believed to contain trypsin inhibitors and chymotrypsin inhibitors. Biji fenugreek juga diyakini mengandung inhibitor tripsin dan inhibitor kimotripsin. (Duke JA. 1985) (Duke JA. 1985)

References: Referensi:

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J 2000. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J 2000. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Copyright American Botanical Council. Copyright American Botanical Council. Publ. Publ. by Integrative Medicine Communications, 1029 Chestnut Street, Newton, MA 02464. oleh Integrative Medicine Communications, 1029 Chestnut Street, Newton, MA 02.464. Pp. Pp. 130-133. 130-133.
Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ. Raju J, Gupta D, Rao AR, Yadava PK, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed powder improves glucose homeostasis in alloxan diabetic rat tissues by reversing the altered glycolytic, gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzymes. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) bubuk biji meningkatkan homeostasis glukosa pada tikus diabetes Alloxan jaringan dengan membalik berubah glikolitik, gluconeogenic dan lipogenic enzim. Mol Cell Biochem. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Aug; 224(1-2): 45-51. 2001 Aug; 224 (1-2): 45-51.
Sharma, RD 1990. Sharma, RD 1990. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes. Efek biji fenugreek glukosa darah dan serum lipid dalam tipe I diabetes. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 44(4): 301-306. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 44 (4): 301-306.
Sur P, Das M, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Sahu NP, Banerjee S, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Sur P, Das M, Gomes A, Vedasiromoni JR, Sahu NP, Banerjee S, Sharma RM, Ganguly DK. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) ekstrak biji sebagai agen antineoplastik. Phytother Res. Phytother Res. 2001 May; 15(3): 257-9. 2001 Mei; 15 (3): 257-9.

Wichtl M and NG Bisset (eds). Wichtl M dan NG Bisset (ed.). 1994. 1994. Foenugraeci semen – Fenugreek seed, Trigonella. Foenugraeci semen – Fenugreek seed, Trigonella. In Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. Dalam Herbal Obat dan Phyto-obat-obatan. (English translation by Norman Grainger Bisset). (Terjemahan bahasa Inggris oleh Norman Grainger Bisset). CRC Press, Stuttgart, pp. CRC Press, Stuttgart, hal. 203-205. 203-205.

Fenugreek / HULBAH

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Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Fenugreek seed has been used to increase milk production since biblical times. The herb contains phytoestrogens, which are plant chemicals similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. A key compound, diosgenin, has been shown experimentally to increase milk flow.(0)

What is Fenugreek?

Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., is an erect annual herb native to southern Europe and Asia. Undoubtedly one of the oldest cultivated medicinal plants, fenugreek is widely grown today in the Mediterranean countries, Argentina, France, India, North Africa, and the United States as a food, condiment, medicinal, dye, and forage plant (11.1-128). The plant reaches a height of 0.3 to 0.8 meters and has trifoliate leaves. White flowers appear in early summer and develop into long, slender, yellow-brown pods containing the brown seeds of fenugreek commerce. (1)

Fenugreek and Breastfeeding

Fenugreek seeds contain hormone precursors that increase milk supply. Scientists do not know for sure how this happens. Some believe it is possible because breasts are modified sweat glands, and fenugreek stimulates sweat production. It has been found that fenugreek can increase a nursing mother’s milk supply within 24 to 72 hours after first taking the herb. Once an adequate level of milk production is reached, most women can discontinue the fenugreek and maintain the milk supply with adequate breast stimulation. Many women today take fenugreek in a pill form (ground seeds placed in capsules). The pills can be found at most vitamin and nutrition stores and at many supermarkets and natural foods stores. Fenugreek can also be taken in tea form, although tea is believed to be less potent than the pills and the tea comes with a bitter taste that can be hard to stomach. Fenugreek is not right for everyone. The herb has caused aggravated asthma symptoms in some women and has lowered blood glucose levels in some women with diabetes.

http://216.167.14.128/all_about/all_about_fenugreek.html

How Much do I Need to Take?

Fenugreek Capsule Form (580-610 mg)

2-4 capsules, 3 times per day — 6-12 capsules (total) per day
1200-2400 mg, 3 times per day (3.5-7.3 grams/day) (3)
German Commission E recommends a daily intake of 6 grams (4)

I recommend that you only purchase Fenugreek from a reputable Herbal store, the quality is generally superior to that found in chain discount stores.

Safety

Fenugreek is considered safe for nursing moms when used in moderation and is on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s GRAS list (Generally Recognized As Safe). As with most medications and herbs, various side effects have been noted; see the potential side effects and safety information below. (8)

Per Thomas Hale PhD, Medications and Mothers Milk 2006 ,”The transfer of fenugreek into milk is unknown, but untoward effects have not been reported.” Hale classifies it in Lactation Risk Category L3 (moderately safe). (9)

Potential Side Effects

  • Sweat and urine smells like maple syrup (this is common and often a sign that you have reached the right dose)
  • Loose stools in some women, which go away when fenugreek is discontinued
  • Hypoglycemia in some mothers
  • Can cause uterine contractions – do NOT use if you’re pregnant
  • Diabetic mothers should use caution with fenugreek since it can cause lowering of blood glucose levels. (5)

Little Known Uses

Fenugreek has an age old reputation as a breast enlarger and contains diosgenin which is used to make synthetic estrogen and has been shown to promote the growth of breast cells. You can drink fenugreek as a tea, use it in yogurt, applesauce or soups, or make a light mixture with any lotion and massage it directly into the breasts. It may also aid in increasing sexual desire in women as well as increasing breast beauty and health. Fenugreek contains choline which may aid the thinking process, and antioxidants that slow aging and help prevent disease. It is also helpful in calming PMS and symptoms of menopause. Fenugreek is also considered to be an aphrodiasiac and rejuvenator. (6)

Active Constituents and Proposed Mechanism of Action

The steroidal saponins account for many of the beneficial effects of fenugreek, particularly the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis.2 The seeds are rich in dietary fiber, which may be the main reason they can lower blood sugar levels in diabetes.3 One human study found that fenugreek can help lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels in persons with moderate atherosclerosis and non-insulin-dependent diabetes.4 Randomized and uncontrolled studies have confirmed fenugreek helps stabilize blood sugar control in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes.5 6 7 It helps lower elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood,8 including in those with diabetes,9 according to several controlled studies. Generally fenugreek does not lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. This type of cholesterol is believed to be beneficial. (7)

Active Ingredients

Fenugreek seeds contain alkaloids (mainly trigonelline) and protein high in lysine and L-tryptophan. Its steroidal saponins (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogenin) and mucilaginous fiber are thought to account for many of the beneficial effects of fenugreek. The steroidal saponins are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption and synthesis,2 while the fiber may help lower blood sugar levels.3 One human study found that fenugreek can help lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels in people with moderate atherosclerosis and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.4 Preliminary and double-blind trials have found that fenugreek helps improve blood sugar control in patients with insulin-dependent (type 1) and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.5 6 7 Double-blind trials have shown that fenugreek lowers elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood,8 9 This has also been found in a controlled clinical trial with diabetic patients with elevated cholesterol.10 Generally, fenugreek does not lower HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels. (10)

BOTANICAL NAME: Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

FAMILY NAME:
Fabaceae

Name in International Languages

Spanish : Alholva Or Fenogreco Dutch : Fenegriek
French : Fenugrec Italian : Fieno Greco
German : Bockshorklee Portuguese : Alforva
Swedish : Bockshornklee Russian : Pazhitnik
Arabic : Hulba Chinese : k’u – Tou
Japanese : Koroha Finnish : Sarviapila

Fenugreek / HULBAH

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===
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Fenugreek seed has been used to increase milk production since biblical times. Fenugreek seed telah digunakan untuk meningkatkan produksi susu sejak zaman para nabi. The herb contains phytoestrogens, which are plant chemicals similar to the female sex hormone estrogen. Rempah mengandung phytoestrogen, pabrik bahan kimia yang mirip dengan hormon seks wanita estrogen. A key compound, diosgenin, has been shown experimentally to increase milk flow.(0) Senyawa kunci, diosgenin, telah ditunjukkan secara eksperimental untuk meningkatkan aliran susu. (0)

Apa Fenugreek?

Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., is an erect annual herb native to southern Europe and Asia. Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., merupakan tanaman tahunan tegak berasal dari selatan Eropa dan Asia. Undoubtedly one of the oldest cultivated medicinal plants, fenugreek is widely grown today in the Mediterranean countries, Argentina, France, India, North Africa, and the United States as a food, condiment, medicinal, dye, and forage plant (11.1-128). Tidak diragukan lagi salah satu tanaman obat dibudidayakan tertua, fenugreek secara luas tumbuh hari ini di negara-negara Mediterania, Argentina, Perancis, India, Afrika Utara, dan Amerika Serikat sebagai makanan, bumbu, jamu, pewarna, dan tanaman pakan (11,1-128) . The plant reaches a height of 0.3 to 0.8 meters and has trifoliate leaves. Tanaman mencapai ketinggian 0,3-0,8 meter dan memiliki daun yg mempunyai tiga daun. White flowers appear in early summer and develop into long, slender, yellow-brown pods containing the brown seeds of fenugreek commerce. Bunga putih muncul di awal musim panas dan berkembang menjadi panjang, ramping, kuning-coklat polong berisi biji cokelat fenugreek perdagangan. (1) (1)

Fenugreek and Breastfeeding Fenugreek dan Menyusui

Fenugreek seeds contain hormone precursors that increase milk supply. Biji fenugreek mengandung prekursor hormon yang meningkatkan suplai susu. Scientists do not know for sure how this happens. Ilmuwan tidak tahu pasti bagaimana hal ini terjadi. Some believe it is possible because breasts are modified sweat glands, and fenugreek stimulates sweat production. Beberapa percaya ini dimungkinkan karena payudara adalah kelenjar keringat dimodifikasi, dan fenugreek merangsang produksi keringat. It has been found that fenugreek can increase a nursing mother’s milk supply within 24 to 72 hours after first taking the herb. Telah ditemukan bahwa fenugreek dapat meningkatkan air susu ibu menyusui pasokan dalam waktu 24 hingga 72 jam setelah pertama kali mengambil rempah. Once an adequate level of milk production is reached, most women can discontinue the fenugreek and maintain the milk supply with adequate breast stimulation. Sekali tingkat yang memadai produksi susu tercapai, sebagian besar wanita dapat menghentikan fenugreek dan menjaga pasokan susu dengan payudara yang memadai stimulasi. Many women today take fenugreek in a pill form (ground seeds placed in capsules). Banyak wanita saat ini mengambil fenugreek dalam bentuk pil (tanah biji ditempatkan dalam kapsul). The pills can be found at most vitamin and nutrition stores and at many supermarkets and natural foods stores. Pil dapat ditemukan di kebanyakan vitamin dan gizi di banyak toko dan supermarket dan toko makanan alami. Fenugreek can also be taken in tea form, although tea is believed to be less potent than the pills and the tea comes with a bitter taste that can be hard to stomach. Fenugreek juga dapat diambil dalam bentuk teh, walaupun teh diyakini kurang kuat dibandingkan pil dan teh datang dengan rasa pahit yang dapat sulit untuk perut. Fenugreek is not right for everyone. Fenugreek tidak benar untuk semua orang. The herb has caused aggravated asthma symptoms in some women and has lowered blood glucose levels in some women with diabetes. Rempah telah menyebabkan gejala asma parah di beberapa wanita dan telah menurunkan kadar glukosa darah dalam beberapa wanita dengan diabetes.

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How Much do I Need to Take? Berapa Banyak cara Need to Take?

Fenugreek Capsule Form (580-610 mg) Fenugreek Kapsul Form (580-610 mg)

2-4 capsules, 3 times per day — 6-12 capsules (total) per day 2-4 kapsul, 3 kali per hari — 6-12 kapsul (total) per hari
1200-2400 mg, 3 times per day (3.5-7.3 grams/day) (3) 1200-2400 mg, 3 kali per hari (3,5-7,3 gram / hari) (3)
German Commission E recommends a daily intake of 6 grams (4) Jerman Komisi E merekomendasikan asupan harian 6 gram (4)

I recommend that you only purchase Fenugreek from a reputable Herbal store, the quality is generally superior to that found in chain discount stores. Saya sarankan bahwa Anda hanya membeli Fenugreek dari toko Herbal yang memiliki reputasi baik, kualitas umumnya lebih unggul daripada yang ditemukan dalam rantai toko diskon.

Safety Keselamatan

Fenugreek is considered safe for nursing moms when used in moderation and is on the US Food and Drug Administration’s GRAS list (Generally Recognized As Safe ). Fenugreek dianggap aman untuk ibu menyusui ketika digunakan dalam moderasi dan berada di US Food and Drug Administration’s GRAS daftar (Umumnya Diakui Sebagai Safe). As with most medications and herbs, various side effects have been noted; see the potential side effects and safety information below. Seperti kebanyakan obat-obatan dan rempah-rempah, berbagai efek samping telah dicatat; melihat potensi efek samping dan keamanan informasi di bawah ini. (8) (8)

Per Thomas Hale PhD , Medications and Mothers Milk 2006 ,”The transfer of fenugreek into milk is unknown, but untoward effects have not been reported.” Per Thomas Hale PhD, Medications and Mothers Milk 2006, “Pengalihan fenugreek ke susu tidak diketahui, tetapi efek yang tak diinginkan belum dilaporkan.” Hale classifies it in Lactation Risk Category L3 (moderately safe). Hale mengklasifikasikan dalam Laktasi Risiko Kategori L3 (cukup aman). (9) (9)

Potential Side Effects Potensi Side Effects

  • Sweat and urine smells like maple syrup (this is common and often a sign that you have reached the right dose) Keringat dan urin berbau seperti sirup maple (ini umum dan sering merupakan tanda bahwa Anda telah mencapai dosis yang tepat)
  • Loose stools in some women, which go away when fenugreek is discontinued Lepas bangku di beberapa wanita, yang hilang waktu fenugreek dihentikan
  • Hypoglycemia in some mothers Hipoglikemia dalam beberapa ibu
  • Can cause uterine contractions – do NOT use if you’re pregnant Dapat menyebabkan kontraksi rahim – TIDAK gunakan jika anda sedang hamil
  • Diabetic mothers should use caution with fenugreek since it can cause lowering of blood glucose levels. (5) Ibu diabetes harus menggunakan hati-hati dengan fenugreek karena dapat menyebabkan penurunan kadar glukosa darah. (5)

Little Known Uses Little Known Uses

Fenugreek has an age old reputation as a breast enlarger and contains diosgenin which is used to make synthetic estrogen and has been shown to promote the growth of breast cells. Fenugreek usia tua memiliki reputasi sebagai pembesar payudara dan berisi diosgenin yang digunakan untuk membuat sintetik estrogen dan telah terbukti meningkatkan pertumbuhan sel-sel payudara. You can drink fenugreek as a tea, use it in yogurt, applesauce or soups, or make a light mixture with any lotion and massage it directly into the breasts. Anda dapat minum fenugreek sebagai teh, menggunakannya dalam yogurt, saus apel atau sup, atau membuat campuran cahaya dengan lotion dan pijat langsung ke payudara. It may also aid in increasing sexual desire in women as well as increasing breast beauty and health. Mungkin juga membantu dalam meningkatkan hasrat seksual pada wanita dan juga meningkatkan kecantikan dan kesehatan payudara. Fenugreek contains choline which may aid the thinking process, and antioxidants that slow aging and help prevent disease. Fenugreek mengandung kolin yang dapat membantu proses berpikir, dan antioksidan yang memperlambat penuaan dan membantu mencegah penyakit. It is also helpful in calming PMS and symptoms of menopause. Hal ini juga membantu dalam menenangkan PMS dan gejala menopause. Fenugreek is also considered to be an aphrodiasiac and rejuvenator. Fenugreek juga dianggap sebagai aphrodiasiac dan peremajaan. (6) (6)

Active Constituents and Proposed Mechanism of Action Pendukung aktif dan Mekanisme Usulan Aksi

The steroidal saponins account for many of the beneficial effects of fenugreek, particularly the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis.2 The seeds are rich in dietary fiber, which may be the main reason they can lower blood sugar levels in diabetes.3 One human study found that fenugreek can help lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels in persons with moderate atherosclerosis and non-insulin-dependent diabetes.4 Randomized and uncontrolled studies have confirmed fenugreek helps stabilize blood sugar control in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes.5 6 7 It helps lower elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood,8 including in those with diabetes,9 according to several controlled studies. Steroid saponin yang menjelaskan banyak efek menguntungkan fenugreek, khususnya penghambatan penyerapan kolesterol dan synthesis.2 Benih kaya serat makanan, yang mungkin merupakan alasan utama mereka dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah dalam manusia diabetes.3 Satu studi menemukan bahwa fenugreek dapat membantu menurunkan kolesterol dan kadar gula darah pada orang dengan aterosklerosis moderat dan non-insulin-dependent dan tak terkendali diabetes.4 Acak studi telah mengkonfirmasi fenugreek membantu menstabilkan pengendalian gula darah pada pasien dengan insulin-dependent dan non-insulin-dependent diabetes .5 6 7 ditinggikan It membantu menurunkan kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida dalam darah, 8 termasuk dalam orang-orang dengan diabetes, 9 menurut beberapa penelitian dikontrol. Generally fenugreek does not lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Fenugreek umumnya tidak lebih rendah high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kolesterol. This type of cholesterol is believed to be beneficial. Jenis kolesterol ini diyakini bermanfaat. (7) (7)

Active Ingredients Bahan aktif

Fenugreek seeds contain alkaloids (mainly trigonelline) and protein high in lysine and L-tryptophan. Biji fenugreek mengandung alkaloid (terutama trigonelline) dan protein tinggi lisin dan L-triptofan. Its steroidal saponins (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogenin) and mucilaginous fiber are thought to account for many of the beneficial effects of fenugreek. Its steroid saponin (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, dan neotigogenin) dan serat mucilaginous diperkirakan rekening untuk banyak efek menguntungkan fenugreek. The steroidal saponins are thought to inhibit cholesterol absorption and synthesis,2 while the fiber may help lower blood sugar levels.3 One human study found that fenugreek can help lower cholesterol and blood sugar levels in people with moderate atherosclerosis and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.4 Preliminary and double-blind trials have found that fenugreek helps improve blood sugar control in patients with insulin-dependent (type 1) and non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.5 6 7 Double-blind trials have shown that fenugreek lowers elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood,8 9 This has also been found in a controlled clinical trial with diabetic patients with elevated cholesterol.10 Generally, fenugreek does not lower HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels. Steroid saponin yang dianggap menghambat penyerapan kolesterol dan sintesis, 2 sedangkan serat dapat membantu menurunkan gula darah manusia levels.3 Satu studi menemukan bahwa fenugreek dapat membantu menurunkan kolesterol dan kadar gula darah pada orang dengan aterosklerosis moderat dan non-insulin-dependent ( tipe 2) diabetes.4 awal dan double blind percobaan telah menemukan bahwa fenugreek membantu meningkatkan pengendalian gula darah pada pasien dengan insulin-dependent (tipe 1) dan non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes.5 6 7 Double-buta persidangan telah menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan fenugreek menurunkan kadar kolesterol dan trigliserida dalam darah, 8 9 ini juga telah ditemukan dalam percobaan klinis yang terkontrol dengan pasien diabetes dengan peningkatan cholesterol.10 Secara umum, tidak fenugreek lebih rendah HDL ( “baik”) kadar kolesterol. (10) (10)

BOTANICAL NAME: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. BOTANICAL NAME: Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

FAMILY NAME: KELUARGA NAMA:
Fabaceae Fabaceae

Name in International Languages Nama dalam Bahasa Internasional

Spanish : Alholva Or Fenogreco Spanyol: Alholva Atau Fenogreco Dutch : Fenegriek Belanda: Fenegriek
French : Fenugrec Perancis: Fenugrec Italian : Fieno Greco Italia: Fieno Greco
German : Bockshorklee Jerman: Bockshorklee Portuguese : Alforva Portugis: Alforva
Swedish : Bockshornklee Swedia: Bockshornklee Russian : Pazhitnik Rusia: Pazhitnik
Arabic : Hulba Arab: Hulba Chinese : k’u – Tou Cina: k’u – Tou
Japanese : Koroha Jepang: Koroha Finnish : Sarviapila Finlandia: Sarviapila

Fenugreek

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FENUGREEK

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Fenugreek – (Trigonella foenum-graecum) of the pea family (Fabaceae).
Also Known as: Greek hay.

Description:
An erect 2 to 3 foot tall annual herb with light green leaves and small white flowers. The seed pods contain 10 to 20 small, flat, yellow-brown, pungent, aromatic seeds to a pod. The seeds have a strong aroma and somewhat bitter taste, variously described as similar to celery, maple syrup, or burnt sugar.

Fenugreek is native to southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, and Western Asia. It is cultivated from western Europe to China for the aromatic seeds, and is still grown for fodder in parts of Europe and northern Africa. It is an indispensable ingredient in Indian curries.

History:
Fenugreek has a long history as both a culinary and medicinal herb in the ancient world. It was one of the spices the Egyptians used for embalming, and the Greeks and Romans used it for cattle fodder (hence the Latin foenum graecum meaning Greek hay). It was grown extensively in the imperial gardens of Charlemagne.

Purchasing, Handling & Storage:
Store in a cool, dry place for maximum of 6 months. Should be roasted before use to reduce bitterness.

Culinary Herbs
Culinary Herbs
24 in x 36 in
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Culinary Uses:
Uncooked fenugreek seeds have an unpleasant, bitter taste, so the seeds are usually roasted and ground before use to mellow the bitterness. The seeds are very hard, and difficult to grind, a mortar and pestle working best. Fenugreek is a favorite in Northern African and Middle Eastern dishes, and is one of the few spices that is usually used in powdered form even in Indian curries. Seed extract is used in imitation vanilla, butterscotch and rum flavorings, and is the main flavoring in imitation maple syrup. Also used in breads in Egypt and Ethiopia. Ground seeds and/or leaves, can give a nice lift to some bland vegetarian dishes. Also good in marinades. Generally, a nice unusual flavor to experiment with to achieve some different effects. Use very young shoots with only a few leaves and some watercress for a nice salad addition. Fenugreek seeds are also used in candy, baked goods, ice cream, chewing gum and soft drinks. The seeds can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute.

Nutrition:
Rich in vitamins and minerals, and because it is a seed and a legume, it is high in protein. (Which makes it very useful in vegetarian diets).

Other Uses:
Formerly used as a yellow dye. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent in grain storage. In various areas of North Africa the seeds (ground into a paste) were traditionally eaten by women to gain weight, in combination with sugar and olive oil. The seeds are still used for weight gain in Libya and other areas. They are also an important source of diosgenin, which is widely used in the production of steroids (which probably accounts for the weight gain), sex hormones, oral contraceptives and veterinary medicines.

Fenugreek / HULBAH

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Fenugreek

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Fenugreek – ( Trigonella foenum-graecum ) of the pea family (Fabaceae). Fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum) dari keluarga kacang polong (Fabaceae).
Also Known as: Greek hay. Juga Dikenal sebagai: Yunani jerami.

Description: Keterangan:
An erect 2 to 3 foot tall annual herb with light green leaves and small white flowers. Tegak 2-3 kaki tinggi tanaman tahunan dengan daun hijau dan bunga-bunga putih kecil. The seed pods contain 10 to 20 small, flat, yellow-brown, pungent, aromatic seeds to a pod. Benih polong berisi 10-20 kecil, datar, kuning-coklat, pedas, aromatik benih ke pod. The seeds have a strong aroma and somewhat bitter taste, variously described as similar to celery, maple syrup, or burnt sugar. Bibit memiliki aroma yang kuat dan agak pahit, berbagai digambarkan sebagai mirip dengan seledri, sirup maple, atau terbakar gula.

Fenugreek is native to southern Europe, the Mediterranean region, and Western Asia. Fenugreek adalah tanaman asli Eropa selatan, wilayah Mediterania, dan Asia Barat. It is cultivated from western Europe to China for the aromatic seeds, and is still grown for fodder in parts of Europe and northern Africa. Hal ini dibudidayakan dari Eropa barat ke Cina untuk biji aromatik, dan masih ditanam untuk pakan ternak di bagian Eropa dan Afrika utara. It is an indispensable ingredient in Indian curries. Ini adalah bahan yang sangat diperlukan dalam kari India.

History: Sejarah
Fenugreek has a long history as both a culinary and medicinal herb in the ancient world. Fenugreek memiliki sejarah panjang baik sebagai kuliner dan obat herbal di dunia kuno. It was one of the spices the Egyptians used for embalming, and the Greeks and Romans used it for cattle fodder (hence the Latin foenum graecum meaning Greek hay). Ini adalah salah satu rempah-rempah Mesir digunakan untuk pembalseman, dan orang-orang Yunani dan Romawi yang digunakan untuk makanan ternak (maka graecum foenum Latin Yunani yang berarti jerami). It was grown extensively in the imperial gardens of Charlemagne. Itu tumbuh secara luas di taman kekaisaran Charlemagne.

Purchasing, Handling & Storage: Pembelian, Penanganan & Penyimpanan:
Store in a cool, dry place for maximum of 6 months. Menyimpan di tempat yang sejuk, tempat kering untuk maksimum 6 bulan. Should be roasted before use to reduce bitterness. Harus dipanggang sebelum digunakan untuk mengurangi kepahitan.

Kuliner Herbal
Culinary Herbs Kuliner Herbal
24 in x 36 in 24 in x 36 in
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Culinary Uses: Kuliner Uses:
Uncooked fenugreek seeds have an unpleasant, bitter taste, so the seeds are usually roasted and ground before use to mellow the bitterness. Biji fenugreek mentah memiliki tidak menyenangkan, rasa pahit, sehingga benih biasanya dipanggang dan tanah sebelum digunakan untuk mellow kepahitan. The seeds are very hard, and difficult to grind, a mortar and pestle working best. Benih-benih tersebut sangat keras, dan sulit untuk menggiling, sebuah mortir dan alu bekerja terbaik. Fenugreek is a favorite in Northern African and Middle Eastern dishes, and is one of the few spices that is usually used in powdered form even in Indian curries. Fenugreek adalah favorit di Afrika Utara dan Timur Tengah piring, dan merupakan salah satu dari sedikit rempah-rempah yang biasanya digunakan dalam bentuk bubuk kari bahkan di India. Seed extract is used in imitation vanilla, butterscotch and rum flavorings, and is the main flavoring in imitation maple syrup. Ekstrak biji digunakan dalam imitasi vanili, butterscotch dan rum perasa, dan merupakan bahan penyedap utama dalam sirup maple imitasi. Also used in breads in Egypt and Ethiopia. Juga digunakan pada roti di Mesir dan Ethiopia. Ground seeds and/or leaves, can give a nice lift to some bland vegetarian dishes. Ground benih dan / atau daun, dapat memberikan tumpangan bagus untuk beberapa hidangan vegetarian hambar. Also good in marinades. Juga baik pada bumbu-bumbu. Generally, a nice unusual flavor to experiment with to achieve some different effects. Umumnya, rasa biasa bagus untuk bereksperimen dengan untuk mencapai efek yang berbeda. Use very young shoots with only a few leaves and some watercress for a nice salad addition. Gunakan tunas sangat muda dengan hanya beberapa daun dan beberapa selada air untuk tambahan salad yang bagus. Fenugreek seeds are also used in candy, baked goods, ice cream, chewing gum and soft drinks. Biji fenugreek juga digunakan dalam permen, dipanggang, es krim, permen karet dan minuman ringan. The seeds can be roasted and used as a coffee substitute. The benih dapat dipanggang dan dipakai sebagai pengganti kopi.

Nutrition: Nutrisi:
Rich in vitamins and minerals, and because it is a seed and a legume, it is high in protein. Kaya akan vitamin dan mineral, dan karena itu adalah benih dan kacang-kacangan, maka protein tinggi. (Which makes it very useful in vegetarian diets). (Yang membuatnya sangat berguna dalam vegetarian diet).

Other Uses: Penggunaan lain:
Formerly used as a yellow dye. Sebelumnya digunakan sebagai pewarna kuning. The leaves are dried and used as an insect repellent in grain storage. Daunnya dikeringkan dan digunakan sebagai penolak serangga di penyimpanan biji-bijian. In various areas of North Africa the seeds (ground into a paste) were traditionally eaten by women to gain weight, in combination with sugar and olive oil. Di berbagai daerah Afrika Utara benih (ditumbuk menjadi pasta) secara tradisional dimakan oleh wanita untuk mendapatkan berat badan, dalam kombinasi dengan gula dan minyak zaitun. The seeds are still used for weight gain in Libya and other areas. Benih-benih tersebut masih digunakan untuk berat badan di Libya dan daerah lainnya. They are also an important source of diosgenin, which is widely used in the production of steroids (which probably accounts for the weight gain), sex hormones, oral contraceptives and veterinary medicines. Mereka juga merupakan sumber penting diosgenin, yang secara luas digunakan dalam produksi steroid (yang mungkin account untuk berat badan), hormon seks, kontrasepsi oral dan obat-obatan hewan.

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The Beginning of the Book of Making an Old Man into a Young Man. . .”

Ancient Egypt’s perfumes, unguents and cosmetic preparations were famed for their exotic ingredients. Spikenard, myrrh, and galbanum: these fragrances remain as rare and precious as they were thousands of years ago. Other ingredients, such as lotuses, roses, and geraniums, although somewhat less rare, retain their aura of luxury.

Yet, not all of ancient Egypt’s prized botanicals were so rare. One in particular, a modest, inexpensive, unobtrusive plant maintains its magical reputation even today. Fenugreek’s Latin designation, Trigonella foenum-graecum, (“Greek hay”) refers to its historical use as horse fodder. The plant was mixed with lesser-quality hay to make it more appetizing and appealing to the horses. Of particular interest to humans were the seeds of the fenugreek plant.

One of the oldest medicinal plants, fenugreek’s earliest recorded use dates back to the ancient Egyptians. Both Hippocrates and Pliny also refer to the herb. Remains have been found in Egypt from as early as 3000BCE. Fenugreek seeds were found in Tutankhamun’s tomb. Unlike the more exotic botanicals, fenugreek, indigenous to the Mediterranean region, was easily available. An ancient remedy for bronchial infections and tuberculosis, a poultice of the pulverized seeds was used to treat cuts, wounds, sores, skin irritations and swollen glands. For cosmetic purposes, fenugreek has a reputation as a skin softener and in Western herbalist teaching is often a component of soothing facial masks. Pliny includes it as a supplemental ingredient in Myrtinum (myrtle unguent), among the most popular Egyptian unguents of his time.

Fenugreek is still common throughout Egypt and the Middle East. More widely known by its modern Arabic name, hilbeh, it remains a popular food. The eponymous dip, hilbeh, is a staple of Yemenite cuisine. Many ancient Yemenites attribute their longevity to its consumption. In modern Egypt, the seeds are added to bread and the sprouted seeds included in salads. Still a component of Egyptian folk medicine, fenugreek seeds are soaked, sprouted then taken to soothe fevers and stomach disorders.

Yet, beyond the culinary and the mild medicinal uses, this seemingly lowly herb also bears something of a super-natural reputation, transcending the boundaries between magic, medicine and cosmetics. Fenugreek’s key word is “increase.” A tea made from the seeds is a staple recipe for increasing mother’s milk. It also has a reputation for stimulating breast growth: smaller-breasted Turkish harem women were said to bathe their breasts in fenugreek seed water, although whether the results were consistently satisfactory is unknown. Fenugreek, despite its bitter taste, has both an ancient and modern reputation as an aphrodisiac. In folkloric use, fenugreek has been relied upon to increase a family’s fortunes. The seeds added to water and then sprinkled throughout the home are reputed to increase cash flow. Another old money spell suggests daily adding fenugreek seeds to a jar. When the jar is full, it is tightly capped and buried in Earth for safekeeping.

Another ancient preparation skirts the border between a magic potion and cosmetic preparation. Fenugreek is believed to be the sole ingredient of an ancient oil reputed to transform “an old man into a young man.” If the ingredient was simple, preparations for the ancient formula were quite complex. Two sacks stuffed with fenugreek plants were required. These must then be “broken up” and left in the sun to dry. When completely dry, they must be threshed, winnowed and finally divided into two piles: seeds and pods. Equal quantities of these were then combined, mixed with some water, kneaded into what is translated as a “dough” and then boiled in a pot of water. (With customary ancient attention to detail, the old formula specifies that it be a clean pot.) The boiling process is finished when the water has completed evaporated and the botanic material is completely dried out. It is then cooled, once again placed in a pot and repeatedly washed in river water, until that water reveals no bitter taste. Once again the material is to be dried in the sun, then ground on a millstone. Again the remains are steeped in water and formed into a “soft dough.” This is then placed within a pot and gently and slowly simmered over a fire. The product is ready when oil begins to rise to the surface. This oil is the final magic unguent. It is skimmed from the surface with a spoon and strained into a stone jar lined with clay. According to the old papyrus, rubbing the body with this unguent leaves the skin beautiful and without blemishes. (As this is the promised result, presumably the stimulation of youth is in appearance, rather than vigor or attitude. As the Egyptians, like ourselves, seemed to have a horror of wrinkles, looking young may have been considered more important than feeling young.)

Unlike some other venerable formulae, which recommend such beauty products as crocodile’s dung or lion’s milk, this old potion is theoretically possible to re-create, should one have a supply of fresh fenugreek and the time and patience of the ancients. I suppose if one truly wishes to rely upon the youth-stimulating properties, it may be necessary to follow the formula exactly. However, if one merely wants to avail oneself of fenugreek’s skin-softening properties while basking in the aura of the ancients, quicker, easier versions can be created.

Unlike our ancient friends, who had to thresh and winnow for themselves, you can find dried fenugreek seeds in the spice aisle of a good supermarket or Middle-Eastern market. How much of the potency of the old formula derives from the seeds and how much from the pods, Nile River water and clay may be impossible to determine. The only part of the fenugreek plant that is readily available commercially is the seeds. The river water was probably believed to carry some magical power and even today, bentonite and other clays are a fixture of facial masks. Be that as it may, another product beloved of the ancient Egyptians can be substituted: oil. The ancient Egyptians loved good quality vegetable oil. Unlike fenugreek, oil could be expensive. On the other hand, today the time and effort required by the old spell is a priceless luxury for many. Fine quality oils, the envy of the ancients, on the other hand, are readily available. Vegetable oils, mainly derived from seeds and fruits, also have specific therapeutic benefits. So the key is to carefully choose a vegetable oil that complements fenugreek’s cosmetic powers while maintaining something of an ancient Egyptian aura.

Which oil to choose? The ancient Egyptians would have desired balanos oil. It was considered their finest cosmetic oil, a component of many preparations and unguents. This oil was derived from the fruit of a thorny tree, Balanites aegyptiaca, once common in the Nile Valley, but now rare. To the best of my knowledge, this oil is not commercially available. (If anyone knows differently, please let me know!) Their second choice would have been behen oil, also known as ben oil, oil deriving from the nuts of the Moringa or horseradish tree. Particularly favored for cosmetic and fragrance preparations as it has only a very slight and pleasing aroma plus a long shelf life, it is believed beneficial for the complexion, particularly for dry and/or aging skin. This ancient oil remains available although the intrepid shopper may have to order it from India. (A source follows at the end of the article.) Another choice, more easily obtained would be sweet almond oil. The Egyptians did have a version of almond oil, although it is believed to have derived from a different species than the one commonly available from aromatherapy supply houses.

Quick Fix Fenugreek Youth Serum

One teaspoon dried fenugreek seeds

One quarter cup vegetable oil (ben or sweet almond suggested)

Crush the seeds lightly in a mortar and pestle and add them to the oil. Allow them to soak for half an hour. Strain the seeds from the oil. Gently massage the oil into your skin, while thinking “youthful” thoughts and hope for the best!

· Kodis Herb Company has a lovely ben oil from their moringa trees. (Tree seeds also available for sale.) They may be contacted via e-mail at Kodis@eth.net or http://www.indiamart.com/kodisherbs

· Information on fenugreek’s (and many other plants) ancient medicinal and cosmetic uses may be found in Lise Manniche’s An Ancient Egyptian Herbal (University of Texas Press, 1999)
· Information on fenugreek’s (and many other plants) magical uses may be found in Judika Illes’ forthcoming Earth Mother Magic: Ancient Spells for Modern Belles (Fair Winds Press, 2001)

Ikuti

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